Imagine coming home after a long day, ready to unwind and relax, only to find that your peace has been invaded by unwelcome guests. We’re talking about elusive creatures that can turn your nights into a nightmare: bed bugs. These blood-sucking pests are notorious for their ability to infest even the most well-maintained homes, leaving their mark on both your skin and sanity. Whether you live in a spacious house or a cozy apartment, identifying the early signs of a bed bug infestation will help to treat and prevent them from multiplying and spreading throughout your property.

signs you have a bed bug
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Below are common signs your home may be under attack by bed bugs.

1. Unexplained itchy red bites

One of the most common and distressing signs of a bed bug infestation is waking up with unexplained itchy, red bites on your body. Bed bugs are nocturnal creatures that feed on human blood while you are sleeping.¹ They are typically reddish-brown (in color), wingless, range from 1-7mm (about the size of Lincoln’s head on a penny), and can survive several months without a blood meal.

Bed bug bites often appear in clusters or straight lines and are commonly found on exposed areas such as the arms, legs, and neck. These bites can vary in appearance from small, raised bumps to larger welts and may cause itching and discomfort.

Bed bug bites can be confused with other insect bites, such as mosquitos or even skin conditions. Therefore, looking for solid proof and additional signs will help you to verify a bed bug infestation.

Once you are sure that bed bugs have taken over your home, you should immediately consult a professional pest control company and get your house treated for pest control. You can easily find reputable service providers by searching on Google for EcoForce BedBug Services near you or reading reviews on community websites.

Pest control companies are proficient in assessing the severity of the infestation, providing guidance on treatment options, and can help you with the necessary precautions to avoid future bed bug infestations.

2. Presence of rust-colored stains on bedding

Rust-colored stains on your bedding can be another sign of a bed bug infestation. Bed bugs often leave behind evidence in the form of rust-colored stains after being unintentionally crushed by humans.² It happens while sleeping on your bed or sitting on a sofa, causing their blood to seep into the sheets, mattresses, pillows, or upholstery.

These stains are typically small and can be found as small red dots or smears. If you find such spots and stains on your bedding and furniture, it’s a clear indication of bed bug activity.

3. Musty odor in the bedroom

Do you perceive a musty odor in your bedroom? If yes, that is a sign of bed bugs in your home. Bed bugs emit a distinctive musty odor, often described as a combination of coriander and raspberries. This stinking smell is produced by their “alarm pheromones” and can be quite strong when there’s a large infestation.³

If you notice an unusual, unexplainable odor in your bedroom, there’s a high risk of a bed bug problem. This odor is particularly noticeable in areas where bed bugs congregate, such as around the bed, along baseboards, and in cracks or crevices.

4. Sights of exoskeletons and fecal stains

As bed bugs go about their lifecycle, they shed their shell casings and leave behind their exoskeletons as evidence of their presence.⁴ These exoskeletons are translucent and can often be found near the seams and crevices of mattresses, box springs, or furniture.

Another telltale sign of bed bugs is the presence of dark fecal stains on your sheet or furniture. These stains are usually black or brown and resemble ink spots. Unlike blood stains, these are a bit dark and are caused by bug droppings. These fecal stains can be found everywhere, from your clothes and curtains to walls and other types of hardware, and are not easy to wash away.

5. Sightings of live bed bugs

Although bed bugs are very quick creatures and are adept at hiding, spotting them in your home is not that difficult. Adult bed bugs are approximately the size of an apple seed  (5-7 mm or 3/16 – 1/4 inch long) and have flat, oval-shaped bodies. They are reddish brown in color but can appear reddish after feeding.

You should watch for these crawling insects, especially around the seams and tufts of your mattresses, near the piping, between cushions, and in the folds of curtains.

6. Small blood spots on walls and furniture

During severe infestations, bed bugs may be forced to travel farther in search of their meal. As they move, they leave behind small blood spots on walls, furniture, or other surfaces they encounter. These spots are small smears of blood and are often found along their feeding routes, but if you start noticing such stains in unexpected places around your home, it is a clear indication that your living space has been infiltrated with bed bugs.

7. Waking up feeling restless and anxious

Bed bugs cause physical discomfort and can impact your mental and emotional well-being. Some published reports even suggest that bed bug infestations are associated with insomnia and sleep disturbances, anxiety, mood changes, panic, agitation, phobias, delusions, social withdrawal, suicide, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder-like symptoms, PubMed Central.⁵

The fear of being bitten at night can lead to sleep disturbances and heightened anxiety levels. Constantly waking up feeling restless, anxious, or stressed could be a sign of a bed bug problem. Moreover, if you notice a change in your sleep patterns or unexplained feelings of unease in your bedroom, you want to investigate the possibility of bed bugs in your home.

8. Presence of nymphs and eggs

Bed bugs reproduce rapidly, and their eggs are key indicators of an active infestation. These eggs are tiny, about the size of a pinhead, and are white in color. They can be found in cracks, crevices, and other hidden spots. 

Moreover, the presence of bed bug nymphs which are smaller and lighter in color than adults is also a clear sign of active infestation. Nymphs resemble miniature versions of adult bed bugs and are found in similar hiding spots. 

9. Reports of bed bug infestation in your neighborhood

If you live in shared apartments and are frequently in close contact with your neighbors, you are exposed to bed bugs. Moreover, a neighbor with bed bugs entering your apartment may accidentally bring these pesky visitors along. In such scenarios, your first step should be to be aware of any current reports of bug infestations and pest issues. The information will allow you to take the necessary action and preventive measures against these pesky bugs.

Bed bugs can easily travel between units, spreading quickly through shared walls, plumbing, or electrical conduits. Regular inspections and proactive treatments will help prevent them from breaking into your living space.

Key takeaways

A bed bug infestation can be distressing and disruptive, but recognizing the signs early on can help you address the problem effectively and save your home from further infiltration of unwanted pests. If you notice any combination of the signs discussed in this blog, it’s time to consult a pest service provider and have your house treated. Bed bugs are resilient creatures and reproduce quickly. That’s true for a bug whose female produces between 1 to 7 eggs per day for about 10 days after a single blood meal. Hence, early detection and prompt professional intervention are key to eradicating and minimizing their impact.

Read also: husband with no bed bug bites but you do?


  1. What are bed bugs? CDC
  2. How to Find Bed Bugs. EPA
  3. Bed Bug Confidential: An Expert Explains How to Defend against the Dreaded Pests. Scientific American
  4. How to Identify a Bed Bug Infestation. Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services
  5. Associations Between Bed Bugs and Mental Illness Among Emergency Department Patients. PubMed Central

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